Asatru Folk Assembly

Asatru Primer

Asatru: A Native Religion

Asatru is a native European religion - one developed by the Germanic peoples from the very essence of their soul, rather than imposed from without.

Perhaps the best way to understand Asatru is to compare it with the more familiar American Indian spirituality. Both are tribal. Both honor the ancestors, and both have much to teach us about our connection with the natural world around us. Both offer a noble set of values. Most relevant to the point we are trying to make, the Germanic Way and the Way of the American Indian are both native religions - the indigenous religions of specific peoples.

When we see that Asatru is a native religion, it becomes clear that this is not some "pagan" religion we have arbitrarily adopted, nor is it some New Age fantasy, nor is it a whim or passing fad. Asatru has ancient roots - our roots. It is the spiritual path of our Germanic ancestors, and as such it deserves to be taken seriously.

Far from being unusual, this connection between ancestry and spirituality is very natural. What is truly strange is to adopt a religion that began in another part of the globe, among people who were not our ancestors!

Asatru honors the Holy Powers - the Gods and Goddesses. It does so using the names by which they were called in ancient times. The Vikings were among the last of the European cultures to be stripped of their ancient beliefs, so followers of Asatru often call the Holy Powers by their Norse names, such as Odin, Thor, Freya, and so forth. This does not mean that modern followers of the Germanic Way dress or act like Vikings, run around in horned helmets, wear bearskins on their shoulders, or pretend that they live a thousand years in the past. Modern-day Asafolk, like modern-day American Indians, drive automobiles, use computers, and dress like ordinary people.

In short, Asatru is not some strange cult, nor something we have taken up casually, nor a historical hobby group. It is a native religion of a large and important part of the Earth's population - the peoples of Europe. As such, it deserves respect just like the religion of the Indian peoples, the African nations, or any other group on Earth.

A World with Many Gods

One of the greatest stumbling blocks for those who would return to the way of our ancestors is the whole question of monotheism versus polytheism. Since we live in a larger society that believes overwhelmingly in only one God, it is a large step for most of us to even consider that there might in fact be many Gods - and Goddesses, too.

Much of the rest of the world, by the way, considers it perfectly natural that there should be many Gods and Goddesses. In the paragraphs that follow we will examine some arguments in favor of this idea.

Our own science has opened the door to the polytheist proposition, though we have hardly noticed. For decades, our physicists and philosophers have been tugging at the Establishment coat tails, trying to tell us that the world of predictability, linearity, and monolithic materialism has disappeared into a sea of uncertainty. The world is not the interplay of matter and energy described by Newtonian mechanics and Marxist dogma - it is, as one thinker has said, more like a vast thought than a vast machine. Einstein, too, failed to grasp the nature of things: God not only "plays dice with the universe" but he isn't the only player! Many dice, many Gods, a multiverse of profound and wondrous mystery...

It is this sense of mystery that pervades the new physics, and it amounts to nothing less than a reawakening of religious awe in a world which has become jaded, boring, and pointless. This time, we are all priests rather than peasants - not content to accept dogma mindlessly, but rather free and happy to pull and tug at the mysteries, to fathom the quantum enigmas and seek the truhts that underlie existence. The sense of the miraculous remains, even as we plumb the deepest secrets of the wonder around us.

The Improbability of Monotheism

Looking at history objectively, we have to wonder why monotheism captured men's minds in the first place. Does our observation of nature support it? Consider nature: storm and calm, ice and fire, plants and animals, life and death, sky and earth, all in endless combinations and complexities. The world around us is characterized by a multiplicity of forms and phenomena of very different kinds. It is perhaps more likely to ascribe this wide range of forces, things, and events not to one cause - one spirit or mover or God - but to many. The natural world does not encourage us to believe in a single deity, but in numerous ones.

Is the nature of human populations consistent with monotheism? Just as the world of natural phenomena is complex and varied, so is the array of nations and tribes that make up the human race. The way of Asia is not the way of Africa, which is not the way of Europe - is it logical that one supernatural Power can be the only true God for all of mankind? Is it not more reasonable to assume (as in fact each tribe and nation insisted until convinced otherwise by fire and sword) that each group has a set of Gods that expresses divinity in accordance with its own vision?

Does the direct spiritual experience of mankind, as witnessed by shamans, mystics, and holy men, support the contentions of monotheism? On the contrary, countless cultures assert that the multiverse is teeming with non-human entities, many of which can be categorized as Gods and Goddesses both major and minor. The claim that there is only one God is by no means the only view. Indeed, the existence of Thor, Odin, and the other Norse Gods was acknowledged by Christian missionaries and chroniclers, while the idea that they are fictional is a more recent development. Of course, the position of the Church was that the old Gods and Goddesses were demons - but the self-serving nature of this claim makes it transparent to all but terrorized peasants.

In summary, monotheism is contradicted by our observation of nature's manifold and differing phenomena, by the widely diverse peoples that make up humanity, by the direct experience of those in every culture who deal with the Otherworld, and even by the testimony of men who claim to follow the One God!

The Effects of Monotheism

Around the world, the rise of the monotheism was accompanied by intolerance and persecution. In a world where it was accepted that there were many Gods and Goddesses, religious wars were hardly possible. It was assumed that each pantheon had a special relationship with a particular tribe, race, or nation. No single deity or collection of deities demanded the right to rule all mankind; Gods and Goddesses were not particularly transferable from one group to another.

Monotheism changed all that. If there was only one God, the Gods of the tribe across the river became demons, usurping the devotion that should go to the One True God. The followers of those Gods were now devil worshippers, and they must be killed for their heresy. Conquest, previously justified by greed, now had a new motivation - righteousness! It was the beginning of a bloody phase of human history that continues down to the present.

Anywhere monotheism met polytheism, the followers of the One God went on the offensive. Horrible things were done in the name of religion. Monotheism was accepted peacefully in only a very few cases. More typically, the confrontation of belief systems meant wars lasting for years or generations. Only after about a thousand years of conflict did the tribes of Europe officially surrender their native ways - and even then, remnants of the old faiths survived in the remote regions beyond the reach of "law and order."

Looking at this record of intolerance and outright genocide, it is hard to claim that monotheism, in and of itself, has bestowed any blessing on mankind. We cannot help but contrast this with societies where many Gods and Goddesses were known: Although polytheistic cultures waged wars of greed and conquest, at least they felt no need to convert their neighbors. Religious war was unknown in Europe until the coming of monotheism - and since that time, sectarian strife has not ceased - as the Irish can testify.

Polytheism and Liberty

Another way in which polytheism differs from monotheism is in regard to political freedom. By its very nature, polytheism promotes real freedom of choice. Monotheism offers only one option for worship, and it historically enforced that option with a social structure in which authority flows from the top downward. One God, one ruler - the idea of the "divine right of kings" came only after monotheism took control of society.

Without exception, our concepts of freedom can be traced to the polytheistic tribes of Europe. Representative government in Europe and America derives from the Germanic tribal assemblies. Centuries before the British parliament was founded, Iceland was governed by a nation-wide legislative and judicial assembly called the Althing; the same is true of the Isle of Man. Tribal leaders were generally chosen by the leading families or by the entire assembly of freemen. Some tribes did not even have a real leader, except in time of war.

Our deepest ideas of law derive from the Germanic world, through the Norse and the Anglo-Saxons (Hence "Anglo-Saxon Common Law"). Indeed, the very word "law" comes from Old Norse, not from Roman, Greek, or Hebrew. Indigenous European law applied to all freemen, and the king was not above it; defiance of tyrannical rulers is a common thread running through the old sagas of Europe. Iceland was colonized in the ninth century to provide escape from the dictatorial edicts of Olaf Tryggvason, the law-breaking king who forced his countrymen to accept monotheism or die.

Many of the individual freedoms we take for granted in the West today had their counterparts in our ancient tribes. Women in traditional Germanic culture had many more rights than did their sisters in later centuries. Similarly, the right to bear arms belonged to all freemen in Germanic society - a right that eroded after the triumph of monotheism.

The list can go on and on, but the essence is this: Northern Europe, under its traditional, ancestral religion was dominated by republics with built-in safeguards to protect the rights of the free folk. After the destruction of that religion, royal power was centralized at the expense of the ancient checks and balances, and human freedom was drastically lessened. These rights were painfully regained through the centuries, with the Magna Charta, the American Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution of the United States of America.

In summary, freedom is a birthright from our polytheistic ancestors in Europe, not something we imported from monotheists!

A Summary: Monotheism and Polytheism in the Balance

The variety of natural phenomena and the multiplicity of human races and cultures all argue for polytheism and against monotheism. The truth of polytheism is attested by thousands of years of observations by holy men and wise women, mystics, and shamans.

Monotheism has been the main cause of religious warfare, which began in ancient times and has continued to this morning's news. Our political freedoms are rooted in native, polytheistic belief - and those freedoms have typically diminished when monotheism has gained control.

Luckily for us, the Way of our ancestors remains open to us. And to find ourselves, to serve our kin and to attain our destiny, we must stride boldly through that door. It is, after all, the front door to our own home - the spiritual home that served us well for countless millennia and still offers us comfort, dignity and freedom today.

The Reality of the Holy Powers

What makes us think that the Holy Powers honored by our ancestors actually exist? Here are a few reasons:

Real, but Different

To say that the Gods and Goddesses are real is not to tell us much. The next question is...what are they like?

Aside from the odd personal encounter and rare representations as statues or on old tapestries, the only descriptions we have of the Holy Powers are in the myths. When we look at the stories, we find Thor pictured as a muscular fellow with a red beard and flashing blue eyes. Odin is a tall, older man with a gray beard and one eye, and he sometimes travels in the company of his two wolves and ravens. Freyr - well, he's a fertility God, with the appropriate physical attributes.

Are we to take these vivid, dramatic images literally? That depends on how you want to think of the Gods and the myths in which they appear.

Here are two possibilities:

The Gods and Us

We weighed monotheism against polytheism, and found the arguments for a multitude of deities more convincing than the support for a single God such as that proposed in the Bible. We focused on one particular pantheon, that of ancient Europe, and considered the idea that these deities might have a reality outside of mythological lore and the human imagination.

But if we are going to assume that these divine powers are real, another question quickly becomes important: What is the relationship between them and us?

With Bible-based religions, there is no doubt where you stand...or kneel, as the case may be. The Abrahamic religions, as we call Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, decree that humans are utterly nothing in the face of The Almighty. Human beings have rights and dignity only because God has given it to them; they have no innate worth aside from this gift. Nor can they earn such right or dignity - these are gifts given unconditionally to those who could never, ever actually deserve them.

The Bible makes an attempt to portray its God as a father, and humans as his sons and daughters, but what really comes through is the idea of God as a patriarchal and arbitrary dictator of the kind popular in the Middle East. Yahweh wipes out cities, slays the first born of Egypt, urges his chosen tribe to commit genocide against their neighbors, and annihilates all who will not give him his due. In the New Testament, this harsh picture is somewhat softened, and we are given the image of Jesus as a shepherd looking over his flock of sheep. This is not much better, since sheep are herded to and fro, sheared, sold and slaughtered as the shepherd wishes. When we want to portray passivity and submissiveness, what animal do we choose? The sheep, of course.

The Germanic peoples, on the other hand, looked to their Gods as their kin. The kings of the ancient tribes listed Wotan or Freyr, two of our Gods, as their forebears. In one myth, the God named Heimdal travels among humans, impregnating women and establishing the social order. The Holy Powers are thought of as the Elder Kin, and we men and women as the corresponding Younger Kin.

The idea that Gods and humans are two parts of a single family is one that carries implications. Most obviously, it means there is a reciprocation of loyalty and duty. This stands in stark contrast to the Biblical religions, where only one party - God - is owed anything at all.

How to begin practicing Asatru, Today!

Suppose you have decided that you are ready to begin practicing Asatru. How can you start?

First of all, you don't have to get anyone's permission, or join any organization. Nor do you have to be an expert in the traditional lore of the Germanic peoples at this point in your development. Academic knowledge is important, but it can come later. You can start following our ancestral spirituality right now, today.

How? Here are some suggestions:

Begin living by the moral code of our ancestors. Compare your deeds to the standards of the Germanic Way and begin shaping your life along a nobler path!

Following Asatru: After the First Step

The guidelines given in the previous section were pretty elementary, but they will get your feet planted on the Way of our ancestors.

It's time to start learning!

There is a vast amount of information on the AFA web site, and most of it will be useful in your quest. In particular, visit the Resources page and examine the growing list of items archived here. Then, purchase and read the essential works on Asatru:

Asatru: A Native European Spirituality
A Book of Troth
Asatru: A Native European Spirituality
A Book of Troth
When Steve McNallen pledged his loyalty to the Gods and Goddesses of Northern Europe in the late 1960s, he could have hardly imagined the far-reaching implications of this personal act of devotion. Now, over forty years later, Asatru (an Icelandic word that means true to the Gods) is one of the fastest growing new religious movements in America. In Asatru: A Native European Spirituality, McNallen describes the origins and development of Asatru, its kinship with other tribal and ethnic religions, and the cosmological and philosophical underpinnings of this dynamic and inspiring faith. He outlines the rituals, seasonal festivals, and code of ethics embraced by modern practitioners of Asatru. More importantly, McNallen explains his vision of what Asatru can and must become. Asatru is more than just another empty offering on the spiritual smorgasbord of post-religious America. For men and women of European descent, Asatru is the key to unlocking our vibrant spiritual heritage.
Originally written in 1988 as the foundational document for the Ring of Troth (now known simply as The Troth), A Book of Troth is Edred Thorsson's vision of how Germanic paganism, or Ásatrú, can be practiced in the modern world. While The Troth itself failed to live up to his expectations, today there are thousands of individuals performing the rites and rituals of Ásatrú, and Edred's ideas have been embraced by a whole new generation of readers. A Book of Troth contains a complete liturgy of rituals for celebrating both personal turning points in the life of the individual and the Great Blessings of the Year. It provides the philosophical and historical background necessary for understanding the true significance of the Germanic Revival that is taking place today. And it outlines the rigorous academic and spiritual standards necessary to establish a permanent body of Elders who can carry Ásatrú forward into the new millennium. This wholly revised third edition includes a new introduction by Ásatrú Folk Assembly founder Stephen A. McNallen, and also includes Edred's seminal essay The Idea of Integral Culture: A Model for a Revolt Against the Modern World.


Certainly you can practice Asatru all by yourself - but it was meant to be shared with others! You can contact Asatruar in your area through our leadership contacts. These include our Folkbuilders (regional contacts), our Gothar (priests), AFA recognized Kindreds (local groups), and our Witan (Board of Directors).


The items listed above will give you a firm theoretical basis in Asatru. But only actual practice will bring true development. Asatru is defined not by what you know or even what you believe, but by what you DO! The way of our ancestors is meant to be lived, not dryly dissected by people who have lost the passionate essence of the Gods and the ancestors.

In particular, it is important to honor the main seasonal festivals to consider yourself Asatru. Winter Nights, Yule, and Easter are usually considered the essential three holy times that must be celebrated. Check out our Events to see what is going on near you!

You have embarked on an adventure - the journey back home, to your ancestral heritage. Congratulations, and may your reward be rich!